We then turn to various Presocratic thinkers, and to the philosophical theories that are our primary concern, those of Plato first in the Phaedo , then in the Republic , Aristotle in the De Anima or On the Soul , Epicurus, and the Stoics. These are by far the most carefully worked out theories of soul in ancient philosophy. Later theoretical developments — for instance, in the writings of Plotinus and other Platonists, as well as the Church Fathers — are best studied against the background of the classical theories, from which, in large part, they derive. Adopting a bird's-eye view of the terrain that we will be covering, and setting many details aside for the moment, we can describe it as follows. By the end of the fifth century — the time of Socrates' death — soul is standardly thought and spoken of, for instance, as the distinguishing mark of living things, as something that is the subject of emotional states and that is responsible for planning and practical thinking, and also as the bearer of such virtues as courage and justice.
A Critical Analysis of the City-soul Analogy as Illustrated by Plato
Plato's Theory Of An Ideal State - Words | Internet Public Library
They deal with questions of: what Love is; interpersonal relationships through love; what types of love are worthy of praise; the purpose of love; and others. It is the first major philosophical text on love in Western literature. It can be classified as a tragicomedy, using elements of both genres. The Introductory Dialogue introduces the complex layers to the narration, as the reader is far removed from the original teller of the story, Aristodemus , and the times Apollodorus has retold the account. Having celebrated the night before, some of the attendees are still hungover, and they propose focusing on conversation instead of drinking. Eryximachus proposes giving encomiums to Love, to which all agree.
Analysis Of Plato's Argument For The Souls Immortality
The Phaedo is one of the most widely read dialogues written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. The earlier Euthyphro dialogue portrayed Socrates in discussion outside the court where he was to be prosecuted on charges of impiety and corrupting the youth; the Apology described his defense before the Athenian jury; and the Crito described a conversation during his subsequent imprisonment. Most importantly of all, Plato sets forth his most distinctive philosophical theory—the theory of Forms—for what is arguably the first time. Plato wrote approximately thirty dialogues. Within the middle dialogues, it is uncontroversial that the Phaedo was written before the Republic , and most scholars think it belongs before the Symposium as well.
He is widely considered the pivotal figure in the history of Ancient Greek and Western philosophy , along with his teacher, Socrates , and his most famous student, Aristotle. Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. Plato was an innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy. Plato is also considered the founder of Western political philosophy. His most famous contribution is the theory of Forms known by pure reason , in which Plato presents a solution to the problem of universals known as Platonism also ambiguously called either Platonic realism or Platonic idealism.