After having treated raw water in water and wastewater treatment plants, the last and final stage of water supply scheme is distribution of water to consumers. The distribution system is a network of pipe lines inside the municipal limit, for transporting purified water to the consumers. The main purpose of the distribution system is to develop adequate water pressure at consumer tap. The choice of distribution system depends on topography of area of distribution, elevation with respect to location of WTP.
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Case Study: Water-Supply SCADA System: Campbell Update 1st Quarter
As groundwater is pumped from water wells, there usually is a localized drop in the water table around the well called a cone of depression. When there are a large number of wells that have been pumping water for a long time, the regional water table can drop significantly. This is called groundwater mining , which can force the drilling of deeper, more expensive wells that commonly encounter more saline groundwater. Rivers, lakes, and artificial lakes reservoirs can also be depleted due to overuse. Some large rivers, such as the Colorado in the U. The case history of the Aral Sea discussed later in this chapter involves depletion of a lake. Finally, glaciers are being depleted due to accelerated melting associated with global warming over the past century.
Case study of water supply and sanitation infrastructure: Hong Kong
WSO partners with utilities throughout the country to manage and reduce water losses. To meet supply reliability and infrastructure management targets , LADWP hired WSO in to thoroughly dissect utility data sources, guide meter testing efforts, evaluate distribution system water loss, and design a cost-justified water loss control program. To support this effort, WSO and LADWP also built an organization-wide water loss control team that is now charged with managing water loss in perpetuity. MWDOC is well-known for its industry-leading conservation programs, but historically those conservation programs have all focused on end use.
The plant provides drinking water to over 5, residents in Buffalo Township and Freeport Borough. Water is drawn from the Allegheny River and chemically treated to remove dissolved solids, to improve taste and remove odor, and also to facilitate the ensuing sedimentation and filtration process. The chemical additives are mixed and agitated, then given time to coagulate and settle in sedimentation basins.